There were many different strains of Zionism. One, adhered to by Albert Einstein and Hannah Arendt advocated for the creation of a Jewish homeland but not the establishment of an exclusive Jewish state. In this homeland, Jews would peacefully cohabitate alongside Arabs and others of varied religions (not unlike what had been taking place in the Ottoman Empire before).

Another, the Labor Zionist movement, centered on establishing a Jewish homeland in Palestine through socialist principles, collective labor, and the creation of egalitarian and cooperative agricultural communities, such as kibbutzim, while emphasizing the importance of a Jewish cultural and national revival. Initially, Labor Zionists envisioned sharing the land with Arabs but in practice, the focus remained predominantly on Jewish immigration, settlement, and nation-building. By 1947, the trauma of the Holocaust and the urgent need for a refuge for Jewish survivors influenced Zionist thinking and actions, and the vacuum created by the British withdrawal in 1947 allowed the Zionists to assert Jewish sovereignty, leading to a campaign of ethnic cleansing against the Arabs.

David Ben-Gurion (born David GrĂ¼n in Poland), Chaim Weizmann, and Golda Meir were prominent Labor Zionists

A third strain of Zionism was Revisionist Zionist movement, lead by Ze’ev Jabotinsky. This was a militant strain of supremacist Zionism that advocated for a more assertive approach to establishing a Jewish state. This movement emphasized Jewish self-defense and the creation of a Jewish majority state in the historical land of Israel, including the Kingdom of Jordan. Revisionist Zionism later influenced right-wing political parties in Israel, like Herut and its successor, Likud. Jabotinsky died of a heart attack in New York City in 1940.